1 The words of the preacher, the son of David, king of Jerusalem.
2 Vanity of vanities, says the preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.
3 What profit does a man have of all his labor, which he takes under the sun?
4 One generation passes away, and another generation comes: but the earth abides forever.
5 The sun also riseth, and the sun goes down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.
6 The wind goes towards the south, and turns about to the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to its circuits.
7 All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; to the place from where the rivers come, there they return again.
8 All things are full of labor; man cannot utter it: the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.
9 The thing that has been, is that which shall be; and that which is done, is that which shall be done: and there is nothing new under the sun.
10 Is there anything of which it may be said, See, this is new? it has been already of old time, which was before us.
11 There is no remembrance of former things; neither shall there be any remembrance of things that are to come with those that shall come after.
12 I the preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem.
13 And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven: this grievous labor Elohim has given to the sons of man to be exercised with it.
14 I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit.
15 That which is crooked cannot be made straight: and that which is wanting cannot be numbered.
16 I communed with my own heart, saying, Behold, I have come to great estate, and have gained more wisdom than all those who have been before me in Jerusalem: and my heart had great experience of wisdom and knowledge.
17 And I gave my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly: I perceived that this also is vexation of spirit.
18 For in much wisdom is much grief: and he who increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.
1 I said in my heart, Come now, I will prove you with mirth, therefore enjoy pleasure: and behold, this also is vanity.
2 I said of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What does it do?
3 I sought in my heart, to give myself to wine, yet acquainting my heart with wisdom; and to lay hold of folly, till I might see what was good for the sons of men, which they should do under the heaven all the days of their life.
4 I made myself great works; I built myself houses; I planted myself vineyards:
5 I made myself gardens and orchards, and I planted trees in them of all kinds of fruits:
6 I made myself pools of water, to water with them the wood that brings forth trees:
7 I procured myself servants and maidens, and had servants born in my house; also I had great possessions of great and small cattle above all that were in Jerusalem before me:
8 I gathered myself also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings, and of the provinces: I procured myself men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and of all sorts.
9 So I was great, and increased more than all who were before me in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me.
10 And whatever my eyes desired I did not keep from them, I did not withhold my heart from any joy; for my heart rejoiced in all my labor: and this was my portion of all my labor.
11 Then I looked at all the works that my hands had worked, and on the labor that I had labored to do: and behold, all was vanity and vexation of spirit, and there was no profit under the sun.
12 And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and madness, and folly: for what can the man do who comes after the king? even that which has been already done.
13 Then I saw that wisdom excelleth folly, as far as light excelleth darkness.
14 The wise man's eyes are in his head; but the fool walks in darkness: and I myself perceived also that one event happeneth to them all.
15 Then I said in my heart, As it happeneth to the fool, so it happeneth even to me; and why was I then more wise? Then I said in my heart, that this also is vanity.
16 For there is no remembrance of the wise more than of the fool forever; seeing that which now is in the days to come shall all be forgotten. And how does the wise man die? as the fool.
17 Therefore I hated life; because the work that is worked under the sun is grievous to me: for all is vanity and vexation of spirit.
18 Yes, I hated all my labor which I had taken under the sun: because I should leave it to the man who shall be after me.
19 And who knows whether he shall be a wise man or a fool? yet he shall have rule over all my labor in which I have labored, and in which I have showed myself wise under the sun. This is also vanity.
20 Therefore I went about to cause my heart to despair of all the labor which I took under the sun.
21 For there is a man whose labor is in wisdom, in knowledge, and in equity; yet to a man who has not labored in it, he shall leave it for his portion. This also is vanity and a great evil.
22 For what does man have of all his labor, and of the vexation of his heart, in which he has labored under the sun?
23 For all his days are sorrows, and his labor grief; yes, his heart does not take rest in the night. This is also vanity.
24 There is nothing better for a man than that he should eat and drink, and that he should make his soul enjoy good in his labor. This also I saw, that it was from the hand of Elohim.
25 For who can eat, or who else can hurry to it more than I?
26 For Elohim gives to a man who is good in his sight, wisdom, knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner he gives toil, to gather, and to amass, so that he may give to him who is good before Elohim. This also is vanity and vexation of spirit.
1 To everything there is a season, and a time for every purpose under the heaven:
2 A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;
3 A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up;
4 A time to weep, and a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and a time to dance;
5 A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones; a time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;
6 A time to get, and a time to lose; a time to keep, and a time to cast away;
7 A time to rend, and a time to sew; a time to keep silence, and a time to speak;
8 A time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace.
9 What profit does he have who works in that in which he laboreth?
10 I have seen the labor, which Elohim has given to the sons of men to be exercised in it.
11 He has made everything beautiful in its time: also he has set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that Elohim makes from the beginning to the end.
12 I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do good in his life.
13 And also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labor, it is the gift of Elohim.
14 I know that, whatever Elohim does, it shall be forever: nothing can be added to it, nor anything taken from it: and Elohim does it, so that men should fear before him.
15 That which has been is now; and that which is to be has already been; and Elohim requireth that which is past.
16 And moreover I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness, that iniquity was there.
17 I said in my heart, Elohim will judge the righteous and the wicked: for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.
18 I said in my heart concerning the state of the sons of men, that Elohim might manifest them, and that they might see that they themselves are beasts.
19 For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them: as one dies, so the other dies; yes, they all have one breath; so that a man has no pre-eminence above a beast: for all is vanity.
20 All go to one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.
21 Who knows the spirit of man, that goes upward, and the spirit of the beast, that goes downward to the earth?
22 Therefore I perceive that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?
1 So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun: and behold the tears of those who were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power; but they had no comforter.
2 Therefore I praised the dead who are already dead more than the living who are yet alive.
3 Yes, better is he than both of them, who has not yet been, who has not seen the evil work that is done under the sun.
4 Again, I considered all labor, and every right work, that for this a man is envied by his neighbor. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.
5 The fool foldeth his hands together, and eats his own flesh.
6 Better is a handful with quietness, than both the hands full with toil and vexation of spirit.
7 Then I returned, and I saw vanity under the sun.
8 There is one alone, and there is not a second; yes, he has neither child nor brother: yet there is no end of all his labor; neither is his eye satisfied with riches; neither does he say, For whom do I labor, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yes, it is a grievous labor.
9 Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labor.
10 For if they fall, one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him who is alone when he falleth; for he does not have another to help him to rise.
11 Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone?
12 And if one prevaileth against him, two shall withstand him; and a three-fold cord is not quickly broken.
13 Better is a poor and a wise child, than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admonished.
14 For out of prison he comes to reign; for even in his own kingdom he has been poor.
15 I considered all the living who walk under the sun, with the second child who shall stand up in his stead.
16 There is no end of all the people, even of all who have been before them: those who come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and vexation of spirit.
1 Keep your foot when you go to the house of Elohim, and be more ready to hear, than to give the sacrifice of fools: for they do not consider that they do evil.
2 Do not be rash with your mouth, and do not let your heart be hasty to utter anything before Elohim: for Elohim is in heaven, and you upon earth: therefore let your words be few.
3 For a dream comes through the multitude of business; and a fool's voice is known by a multitude of words.
4 When you vowest a vow to Elohim, do not defer to pay it; for he has no pleasure in fools: pay that which you have vowed.
5 It is better that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay.
6 Do not allow your mouth to cause your flesh to sin; neither say before the angel, that it was an error: why should Elohim be angry at your voice, and destroy the work of your hands?
7 For in the multitude of dreams and many words there are also diverse vanities: but fear Elohim.
8 If you see the oppression of the poor, and violent perversion of judgment and justice in a province, do not wonder at the matter: for he who is higher than the highest regardeth; and there are higher than those.
9 Moreover, the profit of the earth is for all: the king himself is served by the field.
10 He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with increase: this is also vanity.
11 When goods increase, they are increased who eat them: and what good is there to their owners, saving the beholding of them with their eyes?
12 The sleep of a laboring man is sweet, whether he eats little or much: but the abundance of the rich will not allow him to sleep.
13 There is a grievous evil which I have seen under the sun, namely, riches kept for their owner to his hurt.
14 But those riches perish by evil labor: and he begetteth a son, and there is nothing in his hand.
15 As he came into the world, naked he shall return to go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labor, which he may carry away in his hand.
16 And this also is a grievous evil, that in all points as he came, so he shall go: and what profit does he have who has labored for the wind?
17 All his days he also eats in darkness, and he has much sorrow and wrath with his sickness.
18 Behold that which I have seen: it is good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy the good of all his labor that he takes under the sun all the days of his life, which Elohim gives him: for it is his portion.
19 Every man also to whom Elohim has given riches and wealth, and has given him power to eat of it, to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labor; this is the gift of Elohim.
20 For he shall not often remember the days of his life; because Elohim answereth him in the joy of his heart.
1 There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it is common among men:
2 A man to whom Elohim has given riches, wealth, and honor, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desires, yet Elohim does not give him power to eat of it, but a stranger eats it: this is vanity, and it is an evil disease.
3 If a man begetteth a hundred children, and lives many years, so that the days of his years are many, and his soul is not filled with good, and also that he has no burial; I say, that an untimely birth is better than he.
4 For he comes with vanity, and departeth in darkness, and his name shall be covered with darkness.
5 Moreover he has not seen the sun, nor known anything: this has more rest than the other.
6 Yes, though he lives a thousand years twice told, yet he has seen no good: do not all go to one place?
7 All the labor of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.
8 For what does the wise have more than the fool? what does the poor have, who knows how to walk before the living?
9 Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire: this is also vanity and vexation of spirit.
10 That which has been is named already, and it is known that it is man: neither may he contend with him who is mightier than he is.
11 Seeing there are many things that increase vanity, what is man the better?
12 For who knows what is good for man in this life, all the days of his vain life which he spendeth as a shadow? for who can tell a man what shall be after him under the sun?
1 A good name is better than precious ointment; and the day of death than the day of one's birth.
2 It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his heart.
3 Sorrow is better than laughter: for by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better.
4 The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools is in the house of mirth.
5 It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise, than for a man to hear the song of fools.
6 For as the crackling of thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of the fool: this also is vanity.
7 Surely oppression makes a wise man mad; and a gift destroyeth the heart.
8 Better is the end of a thing than its beginning: and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit.
9 Do not be hasty in your spirit to be angry: for anger resteth in the bosom of fools.
10 Do not say, What is the cause that the former days were better than these? for you do not inquire wisely concerning this.
11 Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to those who see the sun.
12 For wisdom is a defense, and money is a defense: but the excellence of knowledge is, that wisdom gives life to those who have it.
13 Consider the work of Elohim: for who can make straight that which he has made crooked?
14 In the day of prosperity be joyful, but in the day of adversity consider: Elohim also has set one over against the other, to the end that man should find nothing after him.
15 I have seen all things in the days of my vanity: there is a just man who perishes in his righteousness, and there is a wicked man who prolongeth his life in his wickedness.
16 Do not be righteous over much; neither make yourself overly wise: why should you destroy yourself?
17 Do not be exceedingly wicked, neither be foolish: why should you die before your time?
18 It is good that you should take hold of this; yes, also do not withdraw your hand from this: for he who fears Elohim shall escape from them all.
19 Wisdom strengtheneth the wise more than ten mighty men who are in the city.
20 For there is not a just man upon earth, who does good, and does not sin.
21 Also take no heed to all words that are spoken; lest you hear your servant curse you:
22 For often your own heart knows that you yourself have likewise cursed others.
23 All this I have proved by wisdom: I said, I will be wise; but it was far from me.
24 That which is far off, and exceedingly deep, who can find it out?
25 I applied my heart to know, to search, to seek out wisdom and the reason of things, and to know the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and madness:
26 And I find more bitter than death the woman whose heart is snares and nets, and her hands as bands: whoever pleaseth Elohim shall escape from her; but the sinner shall be taken by her.
27 Behold, I have found this, says the preacher, counting one by one, to find out the account:
28 Which yet my soul seeks, but I do not find: one man among a thousand I have found; but a woman among all those I have not found.
29 Behold, I have only found this, that Elohim has made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.
1 Who is as the wise man? and who knows the interpretation of a thing? a man's wisdom makes his face to shine, and the boldness of his face shall be changed.
2 I counsel you to keep the king's commandment, and that in regard of the oath of Elohim.
3 Do not be hasty to go out of his sight: do not stand in an evil thing; for he does whatever pleaseth him.
4 Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say to him, What are you doing?
5 He who keeps the commandment shall feel no evil thing: and a wise man's heart discerneth both time and judgment.
6 Because to every purpose there is time and judgment, therefore the misery of man is great upon him.
7 For he does not know that which shall be: for who can tell him when it shall be?
8 There is no man who has power over the spirit to retain the spirit; neither does he have power in the day of death: and there is no discharge in that war; neither shall wickedness deliver those who are given to it.
9 All this I have seen, and applied my heart to every work that is done under the sun: there is a time in which one man rules over another to his own hurt.
10 And so I saw the wicked buried, who had come and gone from the holy place, and they were forgotten in the city where they had done so: this is also vanity.
11 Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil.
12 Though a sinner does evil a hundred times, and his days are prolonged, yet surely I know that it will be well with those who fear Elohim, who fear before him:
13 But it will not be well with the wicked, neither will he prolong his days, which are as a shadow; because he does not fear before Elohim.
14 There is a vanity which is done upon the earth; that there are just men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked; again, there are wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous: I said that this also is vanity.
15 Then I commended mirth, because a man has no better thing under the sun, than to eat, to drink, and to be merry: for that shall abide with him of his labor the days of his life, which Elohim gives him under the sun.
16 When I applied my heart to know wisdom, and to see the business that is done upon the earth (for there is also one who neither day nor night sees sleep with his eyes),
17 I beheld all the work of Elohim, that a man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun: because though a man may labor to seek it out, yet he shall not find it; and even though a wise man thinketh to know it, yet he shall not be able to find it.
1 For all this I considered in my heart even to declare all this, that the righteous, and the wise, and their works, are in the hand of Elohim: no man knows either love or hatred by all that is before them.
2 All things come alike to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean, and to the unclean; to him who sacrificeth, and to him who does not sacrifice: as is the good, so is the sinner; and he who swears, as he who fears an oath.
3 This is an evil among all things that are done under the sun, that there is one event to all: yes, also the heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madness is in their heart while they live, and after that they go to the dead.
4 For to him who is joined to all the living there is hope: for a living dog is better than a dead lion.
5 For the living know that they shall die: but the dead do not know anything, neitherdo they have any more a reward; for their memory is forgotten.
6 Also their love, their hatred, and their envy, has now perished; neither do they have any more a portion forever in anything that is done under the sun.
7 Go your way, eat your bread with joy, and drink your wine with a merry heart; for Elohim now accepteth your works.
8 Let your garments always be white; and let your head lack no ointment.
9 Live joyfully with the wife whom you love all the days of the life of your vanity, which he has given you under the sun, all the days of your vanity: for that is your portion in this life, and in your labor which you takest under the sun.
10 Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave where you go.
11 I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.
12 For man also does not know his time: as the fish that are taken in an evil net, and as the birds that are caught in the snare; so are the sons of men snared in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon them.
13 This wisdom I have also seen under the sun, and it seemed to me great:
14 There was a little city, and few men within it; and there came a great king against it, besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it:
15 Now there was found in it a poor wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man.
16 Then I said, wisdom is better than strength: nevertheless the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are not heard.
17 The words of wise men are heard in quiet more than the cry of him who rules among fools.
18 Wisdom is better than weapons of war: but one sinner destroyeth much good.
1 Dead flies cause the ointment of the perfumer to send forth an offensive odor: so does a little folly to him who is in reputation for wisdom and honor.
2 A wise man's heart is at his right hand; but a fool's heart is at his left.
3 Also, when he who is a fool walks by the way, his wisdom fails him, and he says to everyone that he is a fool.
4 If the spirit of the ruler riseth against you, do not leave your place; for yielding pacifieth great offenses.
5 There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, as an error which proceeds from the ruler:
6 Folly is set in great dignity, and the rich sit in low place.
7 I have seen servants upon horses, and princes walking as servants upon the earth.
8 He who diggeth a pit shall fall into it; and whoever breaketh a hedge, a serpent shall bite him.
9 Whoever removeth stones shall be hurt by them; and he who cleaves wood shall be endangered by it.
10 If the iron is blunt, and he does not whet the edge, then he must use more strength: but wisdom is profitable to direct.
11 Surely the serpent will bite without enchantment; and a babbler is no better.
12 The words of a wise man's mouth are gracious; but the lips of a fool will swallow up himself.
13 The beginning of the words of his mouth is foolishness: and the end of his talk is mischievous madness.
14 A fool is also full of words: a man cannot tell what shall be; and what shall be after him, who can tell him?
15 The labor of the foolish wearieth every one of them, because he does not know how to go to the city.
16 Woe to you, O land, when your king is a child, and your princes eat in the morning!
17 You are blessed, O land, when your king is the son of nobles, and your princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness!
18 By much slothfulness the building decayeth; and through idleness of the hands the house droppeth through.
19 A feast is made for laughter, and wine makes merry: but money answereth all things.
20 Do not curse the king, not even in your thoughts; and do not curse the rich in your bed-chamber: for a bird of the air will carry the voice, and that which has wings will tell the matter.
1 Cast your bread upon the waters: for you shall find it after many days.
2 Give a portion to seven, and also to eight; for you do not know what evil shall be upon the earth.
3 If the clouds are full of rain, they empty themselves upon the earth: and if the tree falleth towards the south, or towards the north, in the place where the tree falleth, there it shall be.
4 He who observeth the wind shall not sow; and he who regardeth the clouds shall not reap.
5 As you do not know what is the way of the spirit, nor the structure of the parts of conception in her who is with child: even so you do not know the works of Elohim who makes all.
6 In the morning sow your seed, and in the evening do not withhold your hand: for you do not know which shall prosper, either this or that, or whether they both shall be alike good.
7 Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun:
8 But if a man shall live many years, and rejoice in them all; yet let him remember the days of darkness; for they shall be many. All that comes is vanity.
9 Rejoice, O young man, in your youth; and let your heart cheer you in the days of your youth, and walk in the ways of your heart, and in the sight of your eyes: but know, that for all these things Elohim will bring you into judgment.
10 Therefore remove sorrow from your heart, and put away evil from your flesh: for childhood and youth are vanity.
1 Remember now your Creator in the days of your youth, while the evil days do not come, nor the years draw near, when you shall say, I have no pleasure in them;
2 While the sun, the light, the moon, or the stars, are not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain:
3 In the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are few, and those who look out of the windows shall be darkened,
4 And the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding shall be low, and he shall rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of music shall be brought low.
5 Also when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goes to his eternal home, and the mourners go about the streets:
6 Before the silver cord is loosed, the golden bowl is broken, the pitcher is broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern.
7 Then the dust shall return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return to Elohim who gave it.
8 Vanity of vanities says the preacher; all is vanity.
9 And moreover, because the preacher was wise, he still taught the people knowledge: yes, he gave good heed, sought out, and set in order many proverbs.
10 The preacher sought to find out acceptable words: and that which was written was upright, even words of truth.
11 The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd.
12 And further, by these, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh.
13 Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear Elohim, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.
14 For Elohim will bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it is good, or whether it is evil.